The European Economic Area consists of all the member states of the European Union plus three of the four European Free Trade Association (EFTA) states, namely Iceland, Norway and Liechtenstein. By treaty the EFTA states have been allowed to be part of the European Single Market without being required to join the EU.

The Fourth EFTA state is Switzerland whose citizens voted not to accept the EU/EFTA treaty but who did accept a negotiated bilateral EU/Switzerland agreement.

The Isle of Man is also an “associate” member of the EEA by virtue of the fact that by an earlier treaty the Manx government apply VAT and duties on tobbacco, alchohol and fuel within the UK system, despite not being part of the UK. Their agreement does not require them to allow free trade on a range of items including food and fisheries.

Thus the full members of the EEA are:

Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom.

And the “Associate” Members are:

Switzerland and the Isle of Man.

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